There is no consensus of what the various branches of applied mathematics are. Such categorizations are made difficult by the way mathematics and science change over time, and also by the way universities organize departments, courses, and degrees.

Historically, applied mathematics consisted principally of applied analysis, most notably differential equations, approximation theory (broadly construed, to include representations, asymptotic methods, variational methods, and numerical analysis), and applied probability. These areas of mathematics were intimately tied to the development of Newtonian Physics, and in fact the distinction between mathematicians and physicists was not sharply drawn before the mid-19th century. This history left a legacy as well; until the early 20th century subjects such as classical mechanics were often taught in applied mathematics departments at American universities rather than in physics departments, and fluid mechanics may still be taught in applied mathematics departments.

Today, the term applied mathematics is used in a broader sense. It includes the classical areas above, as well as other areas that have become increasingly important in applications. Even fields such as number theory that are part of pure mathematics are now important in applications (such as cryptology), though they are not generally considered to be part of the field of applied mathematics per se. Sometimes the term applicable mathematics is used to distinguish between the traditional field of applied mathematics and the many more areas of mathematics that are applicable to real-world problems.

Mathematicians distinguish between applied mathematics, which is concerned with mathematical methods, and applications of mathematics within science and engineering. A biologist using a population model and applying known mathematics would not be doing applied mathematics, but rather using it. However, nonmathematicians do not usually draw this distinction. The use of mathematics to solve industrial problems is called industrial mathematics.[1] Industrial mathematics is sometimes split in two branches: techno-mathematics (covering problems coming from technology) and econo-mathematics (for problems in economy and finance).[2]

The success of modern numerical mathematical methods and software has led to the emergence of computational mathematics, computational science, and computational engineering, which use high performance computing for the simulation of phenomena and solution of problems in the sciences and engineering. These are often considered interdisciplinary programs.

Some mathematicians think that statistics is a part of applied mathematics. Others think it is a separate discipline. Statisticians in general regard their field as separate from mathematics, and the American Statistical Association has issued a statement to that effect[citation needed]. Mathematical statistics provides the theorems and proofs that justify statistical procedures and it is based on probability theory, which is in turn based on measure theory.

The line between applied mathematics and specific areas of application is often blurred. Many universities teach mathematical and statistical courses outside of the respective departments, in departments and areas including business and economics, engineering, physics, psychology, biology, computer science, and mathematical physics.

2009-03-01 • Просмотров [ 3356 ]